Carcinoid tumors arise from Kulchitsky cells of the bronchial epithelium which are the stem cells having neuroendocrine activity.
60 years of age. A female predominance
attached to the bronchus by a broad base, may have a polypoid appearance.
Necrosis is present, and they tend to be more aggressive.
- single hilar or perihilar mass which is usually well-defined, round or ovoid
- can be of any size but are typically 2-5 cm
- there is often marked homogeneous contrast enhancement due to high vascularity
- calcification (usually eccentric) can occur but is not a common feature
Immunochemistry of atypical carcinoid positive for chromogranin
higher probability to metastasize, to recur, and to have a worse outcome and prognosis.
the 5-year survival ranges from 65% to 75% in
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