Percutaneous biopsy of the lung offers the ability to characterize lung lesions with very few contraindications. Complications include pneumothorax (10-49%) and hemoptysis (8-20%) which generally resolve without treatment (Gohari).
Transbronchial evaluation of central lung cancers. When the lesions are visible washings have a yield of 79%, brushings 92%, and forceps 93%. For peripheral lesions that are <2cms yield is 20% and when they are >2cms yield is 50-80%. It is a safe procedure sometimes complicated by pneumothorax (10%), and less commonly hemorrhage (.2%) laryngospasm (.13%).